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Hospital acquired  infections
 
Each year, in France, approximately 7% of patients are contaminated during their hospital or clinic stay. These Hygiene Associated Infections (HAI), also called nosocomial infections, affect over 800,000 individuals among which more than 9,000 die during the same period. The related annual cost for the French government reaches 5 billion euros(1). In the United-States, these infections affect more than 3,000,000 individuals and 100,000 of them die each year.

These numbers are incredibly high considering that one third of these cases could be prevented applying  basic and simple measures.

WHO(2) considers hand hygiene audit to be one of the most effective strategies for fighting HAI. The reference book published in 2017(3), dedicates a whole chapter to automated hand hygiene monitoring solutions and their different techniques.

     
     Main infection sources are:
 
            Hand hygiene
            Invasive devices
           
Multi drug resistant bacteria
 
 

Three main bacteria are responsible for over 50 % of all related infection cases:
 
Escherischia Coli (25%)
► Staphylococcus aureus (19%)
► Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%)
 
Main sources of contamination arise from:
 
► Patient own germs, during certain medical procedures 
► Cross infections between patient via caregivers' hands or medical devices
 The environment

References:
(1) Mission économique du Sénat, The Coordination Center of the Campain Against Nosocomial Infections (CCLIN) Paris Nord
(2) WHO: World Health Organisation
(3) Hand Hygiene – A handbook for medical professionals