WHO recommendations

WHO(1) has developed a multimodal approach to achieve better global hand hygiene.

5 indications for hand hygiene
The use of HAS(2) in hand disinfection must be systematic in 5 indications.


      Before touching a patient
     ► Before an aseptic action
     ► After a risk of exposure to a biological liquid
     ► After touching a patient
     ► After touching the patient's environment

The assessment of compliance with these rules consists of direct observation. However, this audit is occasional, and the results are considered to be wholly or partially biased due to the influence of the observer's presence on the observed person's behaviour ("Hawthorne effect"(3)). It is generally accepted that this bias has an impact by 200%, or even 300%, on the observed compliance rates. In addition, only less than 3% of hospital staff are audited annually. As a result, there are no relevant indicators that emerge, unless automated traceability solutions are used.

References :
(1) WHO: World Health Organisation
(2) HAS: Hydro-Alcoholic Solution
Errors introduced by the observer may change the observation method over time; the selection of services, caregivers or observation periods may be associated with particular behaviours